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The characteristics of Chinese traditional arts and crafts
发布人:网站管理员 发布时间:2011/9/24 点击:14164

China's ancient art

Ancient craft art is the Chinese people to meet their own needs and spiritual need, material in different historical conditions, with various kinds of materials and the processing technology have created the floorboard of the artificial creation. It is the Chinese nation model art important constituent, reflected the general nature of arts and crafts, meaning and form the practicability and aesthetic to keep the unity of the Chinese nation, and shows the culture itself has the distinct character. The Chinese arts and crafts with its long history, unique style, superb superb skills and rich variety of forms, for the entire human culture create history is filled with wisdom and composed of the spirit of the light chapter.

General situation of the development of

The Chinese arts and crafts of the original happen goes back to ancient ancestors first labor the creation of tools. Condense in primitive tools of the practical meaning and spirit connotation is established the Chinese arts and crafts of the initial form, also established the craft art as the Chinese model art guide position.

The new Stone Age ShiYu teeth, bones, weave, sewing, especially pottery making process, has clearly shows the Chinese arts and crafts take seriously practical and aesthetic creation of unity of thinking and design, also clearly moving display artisans grasp material performance, and the ability of production process and the understanding of the aesthetic principles and use.

Business, the western zhou dynasty, the Chinese arts and crafts have a landmark progress, the practical process creation connotation and spirit connotation further enrich and strengthening. Spirit connotation of the large number of infiltration social consciousness and religious consciousness, make this a period of craft art has a high aesthetic charm. The original celadon and lacquer ware get preliminary development, and bronze ware and jade is made brilliant achievement.

Spring and autumn and the warring states to qin han times craft art shows China feudal society early economic strength and the development of ideology. The rise of rationalism spirit and young, that point to the practical utility of the real life and value pursuit, and inherited cultural traditions of the original passionate and romantic colour of the organic unity of the form, which produces light and lively, taking bold and unrestrained, XiongJiang below the aesthetics characteristic of in ceramics, lacquer ware, and silk on get full performance.

Jin and southern and northern dynasties in the political, economic, military, and culture and the ideological turn, cause craft art production pattern and value pursuit of change. Production center by the north to the south to gradually move, process creation tends to the inner personality and in terms of display. This period advocate the main body personality spirit of creation tendency and abolishing eight-legged essay, quiet, peaceful aesthetic demeanour, and profound influence on the whole development of the Chinese arts and crafts. Celadon, building a and religious art in this period has made remarkable achievement.

The Chinese arts and crafts in the early tang dynasty and develop fully developed, flourishing vision. Tapestry, printing, dyeing, ceramics, earliest, lacquer and the art of woodworking etc level and production scale are beyond the former dynasties. The economy, Chinese and foreign cultural exchanges developed and the liberation of the ideology of the sui and tang dynasties, crafts show stretch and imposing manner, exquisite round the adornment of wan moving and richly full morphological characteristics.

China's ancient art more perfect paradigm and state in song dynasty, and focus in on the surface of ceramic now. The developed handicraft industry and ShangWenChong reason of culture atmosphere, to maintain the creation and main body of aesthetic ideal harmonious and unified provides tremendous possibility, thus forming a generation of calm and elegant, peaceful implicative, heart of chemical a aesthetic style. The song dynasty craft art fully materialized Chinese culture spirit and aesthetic consciousness, it shows and to reveal still create principle has the significant practical significance. Mongolian with its powerful military forces, unified China art and craft has certain development. The zhijin jin, weaving technology ceramic process green decorative and youligong is the period of outstanding contribution. From the nomadic culture warrior, the effects of the

The yuan dynasty craft art style incline to is straightforward, bold and unconstrained and strong. The Ming dynasty in Chinese history and a strong era. The capitalist germination of factors and to adapt to this new culture and science, art and craft to produce the Ming dynasty into a new stage, brocade, cotton, ceramics, lacquer ware, metal, furniture and architectural decoration etc all kinds to get a comprehensive development.

The Ming dynasty inherited the craft art since the song dynasty, and aesthetic pursuit to stylized and WanShanHua development, has the dignified, contracted, JianShi aesthetic characteristics, etc.

China's ancient art of all kinds in the qing dynasty more WanShanHua, variety of techniques of various, exquisite technique, the rich are much more than previous generations, presents the different historical period with a complete collection of the well-known situation. Originated from the upper noble in taste of beauty to the creation of concepts, techniques to win in qing dynasty craft art production in further strengthen, so that a generation of art style increasingly elaborate, delicate carve pretensions. After the opium war in 1840, the Chinese arts and crafts production pattern of, product structure, process thought and artistic style have shown a new look. Decline and new, the imitation and create, abide by the differentiation of modern China and constitute the basic landscape of arts and crafts. Following the traditional process of the qing dynasty shape in the modern industrial civilization under the impact of the rapid decline, and adapt to the requirements of the new age of modern art is rising quickly, vigorous development, pure and fresh, concise, lively modern craft art to be a sign that a new cultural form and connotation, so it with the traditional process of fine arts is the very obvious differences. Modern craft art the production and the development of the Chinese craft creation activities for opens a new field, and set up new aesthetic style and value standard.

The Chinese arts and crafts history on the two clear context

With practical for the main body of the folk art and to watch as the main body of court and literati craft art system. Them as in different social environment and conditions up, represent different growth development class interests of two kinds of craft, have different cultural forms of production mode, the organizational structure, and the function of the purpose and aesthetic features. Folk art is mainly the cottage industry, natural economic production goal mainly is to meet the needs of their producers. Production and consumption, the unity of the folk art and craft products to perfectly reflect the practical, aesthetic one of the basic principles, with simple and unadorned, vigorous, lively quality. Palace and literati process produced in the camps or private handicraft workshops in, to cater to the needs of the nobility and the scholar class and interesting and focus on the show, concept and the pursuit of ornamental value play meaning, praise highly open, any pretension.

The production of the Chinese traditional process is the art of the important phenomenon. As early as in the western zhou dynasty appeared belonging to the government's "hundreds of workers", the Chinese dynasty in weeks, on the basis of qin system set up to belong to major general mansion of all kinds of craft art workshops and factory, tang and song dynasties, less government shows the prison camp handicraft industry system and complete the royal prison thorough, the Ming dynasty, the qing dynasty made do place and weaving the bureau camp system more system and strict handicraft. The handicraft industry organization in the most central city or palace, the material possession, the craftsmen free free labor, production, the product is not to count the cost in the circulation of commodities. In the close and economic structure produced after qiao took the court of contend, at the end of the process, it as art reflects the spirit of the ruling class to ideal style, influence and regulate the feudal period of Chinese traditional art.

Chinese traditional culture concept advocate "metaphysical" of "tao", and derogatory ") "of the" safe ". Therefore, in order to function for the purpose of art and craft has been regarded as a "petty skill" and is "at the end of the suppression" list. This bias obviously restrain the theoretical aspects of construction in China's art, lack of complete system of theoretical writings. But, the Chinese arts and crafts is always our own thoughts and in accordance with the principle of development. The personalized appearance is undoubtedly China technology and principle of the creation thought orientation and ingenuity. Seldom in black and white Chinese craft ideas and principles of creation process creation emphasize social value and social function, the pursuit of spirit and matter, the integration of the unity that natural and artificial sex middle harmony, pay attention to the activities of the whole creation process organic, and strive to coordinate climate, geography, material, technology the relationship between the factors.

Embodies the Chinese nation material civilization and spiritual civilization of the Chinese arts and crafts in international trade, and the cultural exchange, to the world culture of development have a far-reaching influence. Chinese ancient silk road not only the west the beautifully silk, and the west of the east and the data-base of weaving technology. The road across the middle ages ceramic is something the world a bond. China's export not only the Chinese nation great inventions into all mankind civilization wealth and worldwide production industry, but also on the land of the people's way of life and culture concept. After the mid-twentieth century, the Chinese arts and crafts is more comprehensive to world, and further promote the international culture economic exchanges.

The Chinese arts and crafts has a broad field, categories, the pattern, the main numerous many can be divided into several categories:

(1) according to the function of the art value can be divided into practical craft art and crafts display. Practical craft art that contains the life and production of aesthetic aspect of products such as clothing, device and tools, etc; Display craft art that showcase material harmonious beauty or modelling aesthetic aspect of the decoration and watch for the arts and crafts, such as jade carvings, cloisonne enamel, GDCCP, etc.

(2) the history of fine arts in process can be divided into the traditional craft art form and modern craft art. The traditional craft art with a long history, is strong local characteristics and national style, reflecting China's classical culture spirit of creation process. Such as embroidery, Beijing carved lacquerware, yixing ZiShaTao, guangdong ivory ball, yangzhou jade, etc.; Modern craft art that is in the modern industrial civilization and reflect on the basis of modern culture emerging spirit and the need of the production process, such as the creation of modern ceramic, advertisement design, books, decoration, packaging decoration, etc.

(3) crafts production according to the way can be divided into fine arts and crafts industrial design. Handicraft art, namely the hand-made craft creation; The industrial design, using modern materials and industrial technology manufacturing process creation.

(4) crafts and fine arts by producers and consumers of social levels can be divided into folk art crafts and scholars, imperial court crafts three categories. Folk art is the working people as a producer for their own needs of the production process, the creation of arts and crafts is according to the feudal barons to the rulers of the need to make technology creation of arts and crafts, scholars is the needs of the class to the feudal literati made of creation process. To display the palace and scholars mainly product craft art is the product of the feudal into socialist era, as national cultural heritage after that special process is added

In order to protect and inheritance. In the new historical conditions, the professional designers and arts and crafts potter making, become both practical value and aesthetic value of the goods.

(5) crafts materials according to the production process and can generally be divided into sculpture technology (tooth bone, MuZhu, jade, mud, face of the material such as carving, carved or plastic), forging smelting process (bronze earliest, cloisonne enamel, etc.), fire craft (ceramic, glass feeder, etc.), wood to make technology (furniture, etc.), xiu act the role ofing process (such as lacquer ware), cloth-inspecting process (silk weaving, embroidery, printing and dyeing, etc), to edit firm process (bamboo, cane, brown, grass and other materials of weaving pitch), the painting painting process (New Year pictures, plate backing, TieHua, the painting of a pot, etc.), cut carved process (paper cutting, shadow play, etc) species. Now the custom of arts and crafts of the traditional usually divided into sculpture technology, ZhiXiu process, weaving process, metal process, ceramic technology and lacquer process six categories; With the development of modern industrial production and modern craft art is commonly according to product objects into indoor environment design, weaving design, fashion design, daily industrial design, design of daily ceramics, commercial art design and decoration design etc. Books

Aesthetic features

The development of the Chinese nation in the long period of diligence and wisdom to for human technology culture history created realm is original and elegant, the style of glamour eternity process creation style. The Chinese arts and crafts so saturated with Chinese culture spirit and aesthetic consciousness, rich distinctive aesthetic personality, mainly reflect the:

(1) the harmonious sex. Chinese traditional art thought value and material, and beauty, and with the qualitative, form and god, heart and hand, material and art factors such as the relations between each other that "and" and "appropriate". "And", "appropriate" of the pursuit of an ideal, make the Chinese arts and crafts present a high degree of harmonious sex; Physical form and connotation of the appearance of the spiritual implication harmony, practical and aesthetic of harmony, the relationship between the reason and perceptual norms of harmony, and the material of the technical work with the harmony of moving constructed.

(2) the symbolic. China has always attached great importance to thought process creation in ethics reform on the role. It stressed the things in the senses of the aesthetic emotion meet with a pleasant of contact, and at the same time a requirement for this contact ethical. Subject to intense ethical consciousness, Chinese traditional craft creation usually contains specific meaning, often with modelling, the size, scale, color or grain to symbolically YuShi ethics and morality. This kind of symbolic pursue often make palace or literati craft art into pure ethics and morality show, cause the condition or foppish things in efficacy of damage. In contrast, more to their own utility for producers to the folk craft art connotation symbol appears vigorous style simple and unadorned and full of vitality.

(3) negotiatable. China technology views the unity of the spirit and things, require "handy", "quality is life, like Yin and Yang wen", the main body person's life in the spirit in creation take full advantage of the embodiment. Chinese traditional craft creation has been modelling and adornment, remain the S form of the structure model. The structure of the rich life paradigm rhythm and recurring incident, make China athletic process in standard in neat formation of creation and show change active, shu lang empty spirit.

(4) of natural appeal. China's process of natural material technique attention thought quality, advocate "reason material", "because the carvers" and called for "phase content and informs and the van was qualitative and spirit". Chinese traditional craft art in modelling or decoration materials, the stipulation is always respect the full use of the materials or revealed a born beauty. This remarkable aspect of Chinese craft creation that has natural naive, indifferent to the interest and the elegant is sent.

(5) of interpreting. The process of processing technology and attention to be particular about is the Chinese arts and crafts consistent tradition. Rich creation practice makes craftsman noticed produced by the harmonious aesthetic effect, and consciously in two different kinds of interesting point to the pursuit of the aesthetic ideal harmonious sedulous carve: go to the mark of the integrated with harmonious sex, and have the poor JiJue DiaoLou picture of the Hui harmonious sex.

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